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The resulting effect looks somewhat like waves along the top of the piece.
Then the smith turns the hammer over to use the flat face to hammer the tops of the ridges down level with the bottoms of the indentations.
Even such common smithing processes as decoratively twisting a bar are impossible with it.
Upsetting is the process of making metal thicker in one dimension through shortening in the other.
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. Blacksmiths produce objects such as gates, grilles, railings, light fixtures, furniture, sculpture, tools, agricultural implements, decorative and religious items, cooking utensils and weapons.
While there are many people who work with metal such as farriers, wheelwrights, and armorers, the blacksmith had a general knowledge of how to make and repair many things, from the most complex of weapons and armor to simple things like nails or lengths of chain.
Heating iron to a "forging heat" allows bending as if it were a soft, ductile metal, like copper or silver.
Bending can be done with the hammer over the horn or edge of the anvil or by inserting a bending fork into the Hardy Hole (the square hole in the top of the anvil), placing the work piece between the tines of the fork, and bending the material to the desired angle.
Bends can be dressed and tightened, or widened, by hammering them over the appropriately shaped part of the anvil.
As iron heats to higher temperatures, it first glows red, then orange, yellow, and finally white.
The ideal heat for most forging is the bright yellow-orange color that indicates forging heat.